A patient scheduled for primary elective total knee replacement is found to be anaemic, with a haemoglobin level of 90 g/ litre.

a) What perioperative consequences may be associated with preoperative anaemia? (5 marks)
b) What physiological adaptations occur to offset the effects of anaemia? (6 marks)
c) Describe perioperative events that may worsen the effects of the anaemia. (4 marks)
d) What further blood tests may help in the classification of this anaemia? (5 marks)
Question 3: Consequences and management of preoperative anaemia
Pass rate 29.5%
Detailed knowledge of the consequences of anaemia and the physiological adaptations accompanying it were lacking. In particular candidates scored poorly in part d which asked about blood tests used to help classify anaemia.